I wrote this report (pdf) while working for WaterAid Tanzania in 2008, on behalf of the Tanzania Water and Sanitation Network (Tawasanet). It looks at equity in Tanzania’s water and sanitation sector, both as a concept (what is equity, how does it matter in the water sector, etc), and in practice (how equitable are budget allocations in the sector, etc.)
The analysis is wide and the findings are many, so let me just highlight a couple here.
First, we found clear evidence that district councils were targeting funding to rural communities that already had relatively good access to clean and safe water, overlooking areas that had little or no access. The case of Nzega district is shown below, where you can see how the majority of new funding was being targeted at communities with relatively good access, and no funding at all was being spent in areas where there was not a single functioning improved waterpoint.
Second, we found that household wealth was closely connected to access to clean and safe water, and to access to basic sanitation. Richer households were more likely to have access, and poorer households less likely. This is not hugely surprising, but worth having it confirmed.